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Analysis of the sex ratio and related biology in laboratory strains of Aedes. aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles gambiae Giles and An.arabiensis Patton.

Tamirat Tesfamariam

Analysis of the sex ratio and related biology in laboratory strains of Aedes. aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles gambiae Giles and An.arabiensis Patton.

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Published by University of Manchester in Manchester .
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Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.), - University of Manchester, School of Biological Sciences.

ContributionsUniversity of Manchester. School of Biological Sciences.
The Physical Object
Pagination386p.
Number of Pages386
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16571351M

  Chromosome 1 homologues display sex-related features. Metaphase chromosome preparations from male and female larvae of the Rimini strain portray a clear and reproducible karyotype with three pairs of chromosomes which, according to the nomenclature of McDonald & Rai [], and by analogy to the Ae. aegypti karyotype [], were designated as chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Parasites can be transmitted vertically and/or horizontally, but the costs or benefits for the host of infection have only been tested after horizontal transmission. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the survival, reproduction and infection of Aedes aegypti during vertical and horizontal transmission of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). Females infected horizontally produced more. Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (cm 3 screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Such sexually asymmetric competition has been observed for other mosquito species including Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Mercer ) and Aedes aegypti L. (Bedhomme et al. ) and seems to be a widespread occurrence among mosquito species (Mercer et al. ). Whatever the starting conditions, males (with about half the adult biomass of females.


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Analysis of the sex ratio and related biology in laboratory strains of Aedes. aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles gambiae Giles and An.arabiensis Patton. by Tamirat Tesfamariam Download PDF EPUB FB2

2 main categories of sex ratio are shown to exist in 3 DDT-resistant and 4 susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti. 2 of the susceptible strains, 1 from the United States and 1 from West Africa, showed the normal 1: 1 ratio.

The other 5 strains showed approximately 4 males to every 3 females. There was thus no relationship between DDT-resistance and a particular type of sex by: The following paragraphs are based largely on the author's summaries of these two papers, respectively.

In studies with seven strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) intwo different pupal (and early adult)-sex ratios were found. The ratio was nearly 1: 1, with males in slight excess, in an American strain (AS) susceptible to DDT and in a susceptible strain (KS) from Karankasso in the Upper Cited by: THE ANALYSIS OF A CASE OF MEIOTIC DRIVE IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.

Genetics. Jul; – [PMC free article] NOVITSKI E, HANKS GD. Analysis of irradiated Drosophila populations for meiotic drive. Nature. Jun 10; – NOVITSKI E, PEACOCK WJ, ENGEL J. CYTOLOGICAL BASIS OF "SEX RATIO" IN DROSOPHILA by: Strains of Aedes aegypti are known which when inbred or outcrossed produce predominantly male offspring in completely-surviving families, i.e.

a true sex-distortion and not a differential sex survival. Such sex-distortion could be of use in the mass rearing of the male sex or as an actual means of control of natural populations by reducing the reproductive potential and the numbers of the Cited by:   Sex ratio in the Trinidad (T) strain of Aedes aegypti has remained constant at around 43%♀ during seventeen years of laboratory culture.

The divergence from 50% is due to meiotic drive by the M D gene on the Y chromosome. The driving Y chromosome gives a much more distorted sex ratio (mean = %♀) when coupled with the highly sensitive X chromosomes from strain Cited by: Comparative life parameters of transgenic and wild strain of Ae.

aegypti in the laboratory the mosquito strains with t-independent test in SPSS. The preimaginal survivorship rate and the sex ratio of offspring were recorded for each of the four consecutive gonotrophic cycles for each reproductive female in each experimental strain.

Table The development rate of field strains and laboratory strains 88 Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Table Survival and longevity of field strain and laboratory strain 91 Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus fed on different diets Table The length.

Analysis of the Sex Ratio and Related Biology in Laboratory Strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Anopheles arabiensis (Patton).

Ph.D. Dissertation, University of. An earlier laboratory study did not indicate any pre‐ or postzygotic barriers to gene flow between Aedes aegypti Aaa and Aedes aegypti Aaf in East Africa (Dickson et al., ).

However, similar attempts to construct F1 intercross families between Aedes aegypti Aaa laboratory strains and Senegal Ae. aegypti (SenAae) failed because of poor F1. The adaptation of the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia by serial passage in a RML‐12 Aedes aegypti cell line was seen as critical for the successful transinfection of this strain into the mosquito, Ae.

aegypti (McMeniman et al., ). Sex ratio (%) in F 2 Aedes aegypti from single-pair crosses Th.I T8, 14Syn T8, 68Syn T8 and 75Syn T8 Analysis of the Sex Ratio and. Related Biology in Laboratory Strains of Aedes aegypti. and the estimated sex ratio for the female D.S.

Biology of Aedes aegypti (L., We obtained life table data for thirteen strains of Aedes aegypti based on laboratory analysis of. The global economic cost of Aedes-borne diseases, such as dengue, is estimated to be in the billions of dollars annually.

In this scenario, a sustained vector control strategy is the only alternative to control dengue, as well as other diseases transmitted by Aedes, including Zika and chikungunya. The use of transgenic mosquitoes is a promising weapon in the improvement of. The biology and demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia.

Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. The life table characteristics of a selected laboratory population of Aedes aegypti (L) J Florida Mosq Control Assoc.

; 63 (2)– The isolation and characteristics are described of 2 strains of Aedes aegypti in which sex ratio distortion and chromosome translocation were combined.

Sex ratio distortion to the extent of approximately 6 males to every female was derived from a population originating in Trinidad (TSD). 2 strains (T1/T1 and T3/T3) homozygous for interchanges between chromosomes I and III were.

Tesfamariam, T. () Analysis of the sex ratio and related biology in laboratory strain of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Anopheles arabienses (Patton). PhD Dissertation. University of Manchester, UK. A significant challenge to population genetic studies of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, has been the lack of polymorphic microsatellite loci.

In an effort to develop useful markers, we evaluated the genetic variation at 17 microsatellite loci identified in the A. aegypti genome.

Nine loci with at least five alleles were identified in field‐collected specimens from Thailand. the individual experiment in the spring took only seven days to reach adulthood.

Sex ratios and the median time development by sex did not show significant differences. These results indicate that efforts to control Aedes aegyptimust be continuous and directed mainly to prevent the.

teractions in the A. aegypti sex-determination pathway, which may be informative in unraveling the sex determination cascades of mosquitoes in general.

Aedes aegypti is a major vector for dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses, and only female mosquitoes feed on blood and transmit these pathogens. Thus, genetic control methods.

Thus, Aedes aegypti laboratory strains will be fundamental to support studies in different research fields implicated on Zika-mosquito interactions which are the basis for the development of innovative control methods. In this sense, we determined the main infection aspects of the Brazilian Zika strain in reference Aedes aegypti laboratory.

Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days.

Abstract. The composition, abundance, and diversity of midgut bacteria in mosquitoes can influence pathogen transmission. We used 16S rRNA microbiome profiling to survey midgut microbial diversity in pooled samples of laboratory colonized dengue-refractory, Cali-MIB, and dengue-susceptible, Cali-S Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus).

The 16S rRNA sequences from the sugar-fed midguts of adult females. Karamjit S. Rai's 63 research works with 1, citations and reads, including: Genetics of speciation in the Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris group (Diptera: Culicidae). Survival to adulthood of Aedes aegypti F 13 laboratory populations maintained at different census sizes.

The percentage of larvae surviving to adulthood was tested under (a) high nutrition (food provided ad libitum) and (b) low nutrition ( mg of TetraMin ® per larva every 2 days) conditions.

Aedes aegypti larvae follow this pattern throughout development; e.g. a L3 larvae exhibits a weight ratio increase of and a volume ratio increase of when early (right after L2 to L3 ecdysis) and late (right before L3 to L4) L3 specimens are compared.

Due to this continuous growth of developing larvae, which is a dynamic and complex. The interpopulation variation in life history traits of a species reflects evolutionary adaptation in response to a local environment regime.

We exami. Sex ratio distortion occurring in certain Ae. aegypti populations has also been linked to a natural gene drive system, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood [43,44,45]. A recessive female-determining allele (mm) or the dominant male-determining M allele counterpart is linked to a gene drive-like element (a meiotic drive.

Adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of human disease. The size of the adult female affects her success, fitness, and ability to transmit diseases.

The size of the adults is determined during the aquatic larval stage. Competition among larvae for food influences the size of the pupa and thus the adult. In these experiments, the food level (mg/larva) and the density (larvae/vial. An endogenous meiotic driver in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti can cause highly male-biased sex ratio distortion in crosses from suitable genetic backgrounds.

Aedes aegypti carrying a distorter gene D shows meiotic drive when associated with the male-determining M gene on the M-chromosome (chromosome I). Although the molecular basis of the MD system is unclear, it causes a highly male-biased sex ratio phenotype in Ae.

aegypti and all MD males are genetic males. An inherited factor causes a predominance of males in certain strains and in progeny of single pairs of Aedes aegypti L. This factor appears to be transmitted only by males and is not due to differential mortality, at least in postgametic stages.

Mass release of male-producing males might be. Aedes aegypti is a vector of high relevance, since it transmits several arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika.

Studies on vector biology are usually conducted with laboratory strains presenting a divergent genetic composition from field populations. This may impair vector control policies that were based on laboratory observations employing only long maintained laboratory strains.

Background. Aedes aegypti is a species of wide geographic distribution that has great epidemiological importance because females of this species can carry several arbovirus, such as Dengue, Yellow Fever and Chikungunya [1, 2].Due to the absence of a polyvalent vaccine for human immunization against different serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV), vector control through the use of chemical.

Author summary Traditional vector control methods have been showing limited success in managing arboviruses disease outbreaks in endemic areas. The endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia was microinjected on the mosquito Aedes aegypti and later showed the ability to block dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses’ development on vector body.

Nowadays, Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti has been. Hatch and survival rates as well as sex ratio were measured for each generation.

As shown in Fig. 2, hatch rate averaged 30 % over the entire experiment, larvae surviving rate following dieldrin treatment averaged 50 % and sex ratio bias was stable at % (SD ).

Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method.

The effects of EI 50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Abstract. We have initiated efforts to determine the molecular basis for the M D meiotic drive system in the mosquito, Aedes effect of the M D gene is a highly male-biased sex ratio, but varies depending on the frequency and sensitivity of a susceptible responder m s allele.

The M D system has potential as a mechanism for driving trangenes for pathogen resistance into natural Ae. Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors because it transmits two major arboviruses, dengue and yellow fever, which cause significant global morbidity and mortality.

Chemical insecticides form the cornerstone of vector control. The organophosphate temephos a larvicide recommended by WHO for controlling Ae.

aegypti, however. Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of several important arboviruses. Among the methods of vector control to limit transmission of disease are genetic strategies that involve the release of sterile or genetically modified non-biting males, which has generated interest in manipulating mosquito sex ratios.

Sex determination in Ae. aegypti is controlled by a non-recombining Y chromosome-like. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The mean sex ratios between the two sub-strains were significantly different ( ± for the resistant, ± for the susceptible sub-strain, p = ) c.

Discussion In this work, we studied several life history traits of the progenies of two An. coluzzii sub-strains based on their phenotypic resistance/susceptibility to DDT.Orthology analysis on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus samples across corresponding developmental time points.

(48) Gamez, Improved reference genome of Aedes aegypti informs arbovirus vector control. Nature. Sex Ratio Manipulation for Insect Population Control.

Chapter 6. Abstract. Wolbachia are being used to reduce dengue transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes around the world. To date releases have mostly involved Wolbachia strains with limited fitness effects but strains with larger fitness costs could be used to suppress mosquito populations.

However, such infections are expected to evolve towards decreased deleterious effects.